This report produced by consultants from CRA’s Energy and Competition Practices on behalf of the European Commission provides an assessment of potential competition issues in the provision of publicly accessible recharging infrastructure and related services for electric vehicles (EVs)1 in the EU27 + the UK, including a more in-depth investigation of four EU Member States (Ireland, Italy, Croatia and Belgium). The overarching goal of this report is to provide:
- a factual background on industry dynamics, regulatory initiatives, public support and competitive outcomes across the EU27 + the UK and a more in-depth assessment of a subset of Member States selected as being broadly representative of the experience across the region;
- an overview of the value chain, including prevalent and emerging business models in the industry adopted by key ecosystem participants;
- a taxonomy of potential competition concerns around unilateral and coordinated conducts and distortive effects of public funding; and
- an assessment of whether there is prima facie evidence of existing anticompetitive effects.
The analysis is based on a range of sources including public information, granular recharging data, and interviews with industry stakeholders.